Archive for January, 2017
$ sudo ip link set dev enp0s25 alias test $ ip link 1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN mode DEFAULT group default qlen 1 link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00 2: enp0s25: <NO-CARRIER,BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP> mtu 1500 qdisc fq_codel state DOWN mode DEFAULT group default qlen 1000 link/ether 68:f7:28:84:38:ce brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff alias test 3: wlp3s0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq state UP mode DORMANT group default qlen 1000 link/ether 60:57:18:cf:0c:6a brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
When setting up environment variables, for example in .profile you can write the following near the top of the file to enable exporting of all the environment variables without explicitly writing “export” each time:
set -o allexport
with the above, then you can just write the following, for example:
To disable the all export:
set +o allexport
You are also able to set environment variables without the export or allexport, however that will NOT make the variable available to sub-processes.
Count bytes and characters with wc
wc -c filename == counts the bytes
wc -m filename == counts the characters
this can be combined with other commands like grep, awk, sed
example with sed:
sed -n '1p' filename | wc -c
the above will print the first line from filename and count the bytes in that line
Sometimes if you edit a file in windows and then open it in Linux/UNIX it will have the special characters ^M at the end of each sentence. To fix ^M in Linux/UNIX using vi/vim run the following:
%s/[ctrlkey+v and ctrl-key+M]//g
Replace all multi-blankspaces (more than one spaces/tabs) in file with mono-blankspace (one space):
sed 's/[<space>][<tab>][<space>][<tab>]*/ /g' filename
can also be:
sed 's/[<space>][<tab>][<space>][<tab>]*/ /g' filename > newfilename
note: g in the end means GLOBAL
In the above samples, <space> means ‘ ‘ (empty space) and <tab> means ‘ ‘ (tab key press).
See which queries are currently executing in Oracle (11g).
select s.username, s.sid, s.osuser, sql_text from v$sqltext_with_newlines t,v$session s where t.address = s.sql_address and t.hash_value = s.sql_hash_value and s.status = 'ACTIVE' and s.username <> 'SYSTEM' order by s.sid, t.piece
How to find blocking sessions in Oracle (11g). This is used to make sure that the object which we are trying to update is actually locked by another session:
select c.owner, c.object_name, c.object_type, b.sid, b.serial#, b.status, b.osuser, b.machine from v$locked_object a , v$session b, dba_objects c where b.sid = a.session_id and a.object_id = c.object_id;
And this query tells which are the problem sessions:
select l1.sid, ' IS BLOCKING ', l2.sid from v$lock l1, v$lock l2 where l1.block =1 and l2.request > 0 and l1.id1=l2.id1 and l1.id2=l2.id2;
So now we have the SID of the problem session and we only need the serial number to kill it.
SELECT serial# FROM v$session WHERE sid=<sid>
And now kill it:
ALTER SYSTEM KILL SESSION '<sid>,<session#>'
Use the below SQL query to check the total, used and free space in all the tablespaces in the database
select fs.tablespace_name "Tablespace", (df.totalspace - fs.freespace) "Used MB", fs.freespace "Free MB", df.totalspace "Total MB", round(100 * (fs.freespace / df.totalspace)) "Pct. Free" from (select tablespace_name, round(sum(bytes) / 1048576) TotalSpace from dba_data_files group by tablespace_name ) df, (select tablespace_name, round(sum(bytes) / 1048576) FreeSpace from dba_free_space group by tablespace_name ) fs where df.tablespace_name = fs.tablespace_name;
If you are running this in sqlplus you might want to format the columns first
column "Tablespace" format a13 column "Used MB" format 99,999,999 column "Free MB" format 99,999,999 column "Total MB" format 99,999,999
If you have a remote server that you want to sync a directory you can use for example rsync, however rsync doesn’t offer the multi stream syncing and can be slower if you have many new files. The below solution uses lftp with 5 parallel streams to download and each stream is split into 10 separate segments. This is very helpful if you cannot max your download connection with regular methods and of course if the uploading server has enough bandwidth.
#!/bin/bash login=your_username pass=your_password host=sftp://download.redoem.com remote_dir=/media/files/redoem/dir local_dir=/home/redoer/downloads trap "rm -f /tmp/syncserver.lock" SIGINT SIGTERM if [ -e /tmp/syncserver.lock ] then echo "Syncserver is running already." exit 1 else touch /tmp/syncserver.lock lftp -u $login,$pass $host << EOF set ftp:ssl-allow yes set mirror:use-pget-n 10 mirror -c -P5 --newer-than=now-15min --log=syncserver.log $remote_dir $local_dir quit EOF rm -f /tmp/syncserver.lock trap - SIGINT SIGTERM exit 0 fi
The above sample should work for most cases – you just need to change the values of the variables (highlighted in red).
This part (–newer-than=now-15min) can be changed based on how old files you want to sync, for example if you synced the files 4 hours and you have new files in the last hour, you want to change this part to ONLY download the new files then change this part to be now-60min or more (but less than 4 hours in this example).
If you want to share from your local machine to the remote server, replace this line as (changed parts highlighted in red):
mirror -R -c -P5 --newer-than=now-15min --log=syncserver.log $local_dir $remote_dir
Now save the above as a .sh file, example syncserver.sh and you can add it as a cronjob to run every 15 minutes or run it when you have new files.
*/15 * * * * /home/redoer/syncserver.sh >> /home/redoer/sync_cron.log 2>&1
It is nice to have an IRC connection that is always available and that doesn’t have your home IP address exposed. With the ZNC setup you can then use your local IRC client (BitchX, irssi, HexChat etc) to connect to the ZNC and you will be able to see all the networks and channels it is connected to. This tutorial will explain how to setup ZNC on a $5/month DigitalOcean droplet (ref link) with Ubuntu 16.04.1. Of course this setup should work on any hosting and setup – DigitalOcean is just given as an example here.
Create a Droplet
1. Press on the Create a Droplet button once you are logged in your DO account
- Select the OS image (Ubuntu 16.04.X), the Droplet size/price ($5/mo), data center region, add extra features, ssh key if you want that extra security and then press on Create Droplet
2. Login to your Droplet (box) and make sure everything is up to date
sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get upgrade
Installation and Build of ZNC
1. Grab few essentials that are needed to compile the ZNC from source
sudo apt-get install build-essential libssl-dev libperl-dev pkg-config
2. Grab the latest ZNC source tar ball
cd /usr/local/src; sudo wget http://znc.in/releases/znc-latest.tar.gz
3. Extract the package and enter the directory
sudo tar -xzvf znc-latest.tar.gz; cd znc*
4. Configure the source system wide (you can use ./configure –prefix=$HOME/znc if you don’t want system wide)
5. Then, compile ZNC (might take few minutes)
sudo make; sudo make install
Configuration of ZNC
1. Create a new user on which we will run ZNC
2. Switch to the new user
su znc-admin; cd ~
3. Start ZNC and its configuration
4. Below is a sample configuration (ZNC version 1.6.4) – I highlighted in red all the config that I entered manually, the rest is the default values (what is given in the brackets [ ])
[ .. ] Checking for list of available modules... [ >> ] ok [ ** ] [ ** ] -- Global settings -- [ ** ] [ ?? ] Listen on port (1025 to 65534): 14125 [ ?? ] Listen using SSL (yes/no) [no]: yes [ ?? ] Listen using both IPv4 and IPv6 (yes/no) [yes]: yes [ .. ] Verifying the listener... [ >> ] ok [ ** ] Unable to locate pem file: [/home/znc-admin/.znc/znc.pem], creating it [ .. ] Writing Pem file [/home/znc-admin/.znc/znc.pem]... [ >> ] ok [ ** ] Enabled global modules [webadmin] [ ** ] [ ** ] -- Admin user settings -- [ ** ] [ ?? ] Username (alphanumeric): redoEm [ ?? ] Enter password: [ ?? ] Confirm password: [ ?? ] Nick [redoEm]: [ ?? ] Alternate nick [redoEm_]: [ ?? ] Ident [redoEm]: [ ?? ] Real name [Got ZNC?]: Redo'Em [ ?? ] Bind host (optional): [ ** ] Enabled user modules [chansaver, controlpanel] [ ** ] [ ?? ] Set up a network? (yes/no) [yes]: [ ** ] [ ** ] -- Network settings -- [ ** ] [ ?? ] Name [freenode]: [ ?? ] Server host [chat.freenode.net]: [ ?? ] Server uses SSL? (yes/no) [yes]: [ ?? ] Server port (1 to 65535) : [ ?? ] Server password (probably empty): [ ?? ] Initial channels: #redoEm [ ** ] Enabled network modules [simple_away] [ ** ] [ .. ] Writing config [/home/znc-admin/.znc/configs/znc.conf]... [ >> ] ok [ ** ] [ ** ] To connect to this ZNC you need to connect to it as your IRC server [ ** ] using the port that you supplied. You have to supply your login info [ ** ] as the IRC server password like this: user/network:pass. [ ** ] [ ** ] Try something like this in your IRC client... [ ** ] /server <znc_server_ip> +14125 redoEm:<pass> [ ** ] [ ** ] To manage settings, users and networks, point your web browser to [ ** ] https://<znc_server_ip>:14125/ [ ** ] [ ?? ] Launch ZNC now? (yes/no) [yes]: [ .. ] Opening config [/home/znc-admin/.znc/configs/znc.conf]... [ >> ] ok [ .. ] Loading global module [webadmin]... [ >> ] [/usr/local/lib/znc/webadmin.so] [ .. ] Binding to port [+34125]... [ >> ] ok [ ** ] Loading user [redoEm] [ ** ] Loading network [freenode] [ .. ] Loading network module [simple_away]... [ >> ] [/usr/local/lib/znc/simple_away.so] [ .. ] Adding server [chat.freenode.net +6697 ]... [ >> ] ok [ .. ] Loading user module [chansaver]... [ >> ] ok [ .. ] Loading user module [controlpanel]... [ >> ] ok [ .. ] Forking into the background... [ >> ] [pid: 19576] [ ** ] ZNC 1.6.4 - http://znc.in
That is it – ZNC is now up and running!
Connect to ZNC with your local IRC Client
Now find the IP address from your Droplet and setup your IRC client to connect to it.
Example with HexChat:
After connecting to the ZNC all the networks and channels you have added will appear.